In 1968 (2024 B.S.) horticulture farm was established at Kartikswami VDC-4, Gairagaun, Jumla as an ‘Apple Demonstration Orchard’ under the Department of Agriculture (DOA). Another horticulture farm, was established in 1975 (2031 B.S.) at Chandannath VDC-2, Rajikot, Jumla for fruit sapling and vegetable seed production and distribution to the Karnali region of Nepal. Horticulture farm, Rajikot, along with the Gairagaun farm came under Nepal Agricultural Research Council from Department of Agriculture (DOA) in 1995 (2052 B.S.) and named as Agricultural Research Station (Horticulture), Rajikot, Jumla. Finally, in 2015 (2072 B.S.) the station was renamed as Horticultural Research Station (HRS), Rajikot, Jumla. Since then, this station has been conducting research activities and production programs on temperate fruits and vegetable crops. In addition, the station has recently commenced research studies on germplasm collection, maintenance and evaluation of fruits and vegetable crops, organic production of vegetable crops and soil nutrient management.
The station is situated in Chandannath Municipality-2, Rajikot of Jumla district which is about 3 km away from the district head quarter, Khalanga Bazar. Geographically, station is situated at 280 28′ to 290 30′ North latitude and 810 28′ to 820 18′ East longitude with an altitude of 2,330 meter above mean sea level (masl). Total area of the station is 9.91 ha of which 3.38 ha is in Chandannath Municipality-15, Gairagaun (A-Block) and 6.53 ha in Chandannath Municipality-2, Rajikot (B and C-Block).
Jumla, Humla, Mugu, Dolpa and Kalikot districts of Karmali zone under the temperate climatic condition of mid-western development region
To transform the subsistence farming system of agriculture to commercial one for sustainable livelihood improvement and poverty alleviation through the development and dissemination of sustainable and eco-friendly technologies on horticultural crops especially, temperate fruits, vegetable crops for mountainous agro-climatic condition of Karnali region.
To generate sustainable technologies for increasing production and productivity of horticultural crops in mountainous agro-climatic condition of Nepal
- Conduct research works on horticultural crops on the basis of its potentialities and farmers needs
- Conduct on-farm research to verify and transfer technologies to the clients and feed their researchable problems to the scientist and make strong linkage with extension personnel at various levels
- Maintain and multiply Breeder and Foundation seeds of vegetables and produce quality saplings of temperate fruits
- Collaborate with central disciplinary divisions and commodity research programs for various research works
- Introduction, evaluation and maintenance of germplasms of fruits and vegetable crops for further utilization in breeding programs
- To develop suitable package of practices in temperate fruits and vegetable crops for income generation of resource poor mountainous farmers of Karnali region of Nepal
- To develop economically viable and location specific package of technologies on horticultural crops.
- To test and verify technologies in fruits and vegetable crops for mountainous ago-climatic condition of the Karnali region of Nepal
Major Research Achievements
- Germplasm collection and maintenance: 43 varieties of apple, 4 varieties of walnut, 5 varieties of apricot, 3 varieties of peach, 3 varieties of plum, 2 varieties of sweet cherry, 6 varieties of kiwi, 1 variety of edi-mayal and 1 varietiy of crab apple have been collected and maintained at the station.
- Post harvest storage of apple fruits: Due to the low humidity, there is a higher loss in the storage of apple fruit inside the room. To solve the problem research has been conducted at the station. The research result revealed that loss can be minimized up to 38.50% if apple fruit is stored inside the wooden box.
- Identification of appropriate cushioning material for transportation from orchard to the packaging house: The lowest bruising damage was observed on grass cushion (8%, 9%, 12% in Red, Royal and Golden Delicious respectively) whereas, the highest on sole doko (22%, 24%, 28%, in Red, Royal and Golden Delicious respectively). Grass cushion is easily available and cost effective, thus recommended for transportation of apple fruits from orchard to the packaging house.
- Identification of appropriate packaging cartoon: The lowest bruising damage was observed on 5 ply 160 PSI CFB boxes (16.4%, 10.9% and 14.1% in Red, Royal and Golden Delicious varieties respectively), whereas, the highest on Beer CFB boxes (27%, 23.4%, 32.4% in Red, Royal and Golden Delicious respectively). Therefore, 5 ply 160 PSI CFB boxes are cost effective and suitable for apple fruits packaging and transportation for distant markets.
- Identification of appropriate wrapping material and deck plate: The lowest bruising damage (8.4%) on Red Delicious apple was observed on Styrofoam wrapped fruits packed CFB boxes supplemented with deck plates, whereas the highest (32.8%) on CFB boxes without Styrofoam and deck plate. Thus, wrapping of individual apple fruit with Styrofoam and use of deck plates is recommended to minimize bruising damage during the transportation in order to prolong the shelf life of apple fruits.
- Effect of pruning and nutrient application on yield and quality of apple fruits: The highest fruit weight (115 gm) was obtained in pruned tree supplemented with 800 gm N2 + 400 gm P2O5 whereas the lowest in control (75 gm). The highest number of fruit/tree (1,538) was recorded in pruned tree supplemented with 800 gm N2 + 400 gm P2O5 whereas the lowest in control (598). The highest fruit yield per tree (165 kg) was obtained in pruned tree supplemented with 800 gm N2 + 400 gm P2O5 whereas the lowest in control (44 kg).
- Management of major insect pests and disease of apple under on farm condition: Application of Atso mineral oil @ 10 ml/liter water has been found effective against San Jose scale. Incidence of sooty mould on apple trees is minimized through judicious pruning followed by application of 1% Bordeaux mixture three times per year: 1st after pruning during dormant season, 2nd in May and 3rd in July. Bordeaux paste also has been found more effective on controlling papery bark and stem black disease. Mass rearing and release of parasitoid Aphilinus mali for biological control of apple wooly aphid.
- Grafting of walnut: Walnut is a major fruit crop after apple in Jumla. The demand of sapling is ever increasing in Karnali region. However, the success of grafting is very low. The study result in vegetative propagation revealed that graft success is up to 48% if grafting is done with tongue method in 3rd week Chaitra.
- Varietal evaluation of potato: ‘Khumal seto-1’ and ‘Desiree’ varieties of potato has been found superior and recommended for cultivation in Karnali region whereas potato clone ‘CIP 392222.25’ identified as drought and late blight tolerant and produces higher yield (21mt/ha).
- Storage of potato in pit: Storage loss of ‘Kufri Jyoti’ variety of potato was minimum (1.2%) on pit storage whereas, the highest on wooden racks (14%) when seed potato is stored from Aswin to Chaitra in Jumla.
- Varietal evaluation of cauliflower: ‘Snow Crown’ variety of cauliflower is recommended to plant during Falgun, Baishakh and Shravan which was earlier, high yielder and tolerant to some insect pests and diseases.
- Varietal evaluation of cabbage: Research done on cabbage varieties revealed that ‘Green Coronet’ variety was found most suitable under Jumla condition as it is higher yielder, tolerant to snowfall, no cracking of head and head is tighter. It can be planted during Falgun, Baishakh and Shravan which is slightly late, high yielder and tolerant to some insect pests and diseases.
- Organic vegetable production: On station field experiment on cabbage was conducted at HRS, Rajikot, Jumla to identify the appropriate dose of Kwian Thong. Based on the results, the highest cabbage yield (94.91 mt/ha) was recorded from Kwian Thong @350 kg/ha followed by Kwian Thong @ 300 kg/ha (81.91 mt/ha) and 250 kg/ha (73.45 mt/ha) respectively.
- Varietal evaluation on garlic: Eleven landraces of garlic selected from the observation nursery were tested under varietal evaluation block. As per the result, yield of bulb was recorded the highest from genotype ‘ARM-01’ (50.32 mt/ha) followed by ‘Mugu Local’ (49.91 mt/ha).
- Seed production of vegetables: Seed production technology of radish var. ‘Tokinashi’, carrot var. ‘New Kuroda’, broad leaf mustard var. ‘Marpha Chaudapat’, swiss chard var. ‘Susag’, onion var. ‘Red Creole’, garlic var. ‘Chinese’, garden pea var. ‘Sarlahi Arkel’ and ‘Sikkime’, potato var. ‘Desiree’, ‘Cardinal’, ‘Khumalseto-1’, ‘N.P.I-106’ and ‘Kufri Jyoti’ have been developed and seed production initiated by the farmers of Patmara and Dillichaur VDCs of Jumla.
Current Research Thrust
- Introduction and evaluation of spur apples varieties in Karnali region of Nepal
- Sustainable seed potato production for food security improvement in the Karnali region of Nepal through participatory varietal selection and dissemination of community based seed production technologies
- Verification of off-season fresh vegetable production technology dissemination at Surkhet-Jumla road corridor of the Karnali region
- Source seed and sapling production, mother stock maintenance and orchard management
- Study on on-farm management of major insect pest and diseases of apple
- Collection, characterization and evaluation of garlic germplasm
- Quality production and shelf life enhancement of apple fruits through generation of appropriate post harvest handling techniques
- Verification of quality sapling production technology in walnut
- Mr. Raj Kumar Giri, Scientist (S-2)/Chief
Nepal Agricultural Research Council
Horticultural Research Station (HRS)
Chandannath Municipality-2, Rajikot, Jumla, Nepal